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Download The Cement of the Universe PDF
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Publisher : Oxford : Clarendon Press
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ISBN 10 : UCSC:32106000079472
Pages : 329 pages
Rating : 4.:/5 (321 users)
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Download or read book The Cement of the Universe written by J. L. Mackie and published by Oxford : Clarendon Press. This book was released on 1974 with total page 329 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Mackie makes a careful study of several philosophical issues involved in his account of causation. He follows Hume's distinction between causation as a concept and causation as it is 'in the objects' and attempts to provide an account of both aspects.

Download The Cement of the Universe PDF
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ISBN 10 : OCLC:1132167313
Pages : 329 pages
Rating : 4.:/5 (113 users)
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Download or read book The Cement of the Universe written by John Leslie Mackie and published by . This book was released on 1980 with total page 329 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Download The Oxford Companion to Philosophy PDF
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Publisher : OUP Oxford
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ISBN 10 : 9780191037474
Pages : 1088 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (91 users)
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Download or read book The Oxford Companion to Philosophy written by Ted Honderich and published by OUP Oxford. This book was released on 2005-03-10 with total page 1088 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Oxford University Press presents a major new edition of the definitive philosophical reference work for readers at all levels. For ten years the original volume has served as a stimulating introduction for general readers and as an indispensable guide for students; its breadth and depth of coverage have ensured that it is also read with pleasure and interest by those working at a higher level in philosophy and related disciplines. A distinguished international assembly of 249 philosophers contributed almost 2,000 entries, and many of these have now been considerably revised and updated; to these are added over 300 brand-new pieces on a fascinating range of current topics. This new edition offers enlightening and enjoyable discussions of all aspects of philosophy, and of the lives and work of the great philosophers from antiquity to the present day.

Download Causation and Modern Philosophy PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781136820069
Pages : 274 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (368 users)
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Download or read book Causation and Modern Philosophy written by Keith Allen and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2011-02 with total page 274 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This volume brings together a collection of new essays by leading scholars on the subject of causation in the early modern period, from Descartes to Lady Mary Shepherd. Aimed at researchers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates, the volume advances the understanding of early modern discussions of causation, and situates these discussions in the wider context of early modern philosophy and science. Specifically, the volume contains essays on key early modern thinkers, such as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hume, Kant. It also contains essays that examine the important contributions to the causation debate of less widely discussed figures, including Louis la Forge, Thomas Brown and Lady Mary Shepherd.

Download Probabilistic Causality in Longitudinal Studies PDF
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Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
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ISBN 10 : 9781461226840
Pages : 131 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (612 users)
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Download or read book Probabilistic Causality in Longitudinal Studies written by Mervi Eerola and published by Springer Science & Business Media. This book was released on 2012-12-06 with total page 131 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In many applied fields of statistics the concept of causality is central to a scientific investigation. The author's aim in this book is to extend the classical theories of probabilistic causality to longitudinal settings and to propose that interesting causal questions can be related to causal effects which can change in time. The proposed prediction method in this study provides a framework to study the dynamics and the magnitudes of causal effects in a series of dependent events. Its usefulness is demonstrated by the analysis of two examples both drawn from biomedicine, one on bone marrow transplants and one on mental hospitalization. Consequently, statistical researchers and other scientists concerned with identifying causal relationships will find this an interesting and new approach to this problem.

Download Causality in the Sciences PDF
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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780199574131
Pages : 938 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (995 users)
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Download or read book Causality in the Sciences written by Phyllis McKay Illari and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2011-03-17 with total page 938 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Why do ideas of how mechanisms relate to causality and probability differ so much across the sciences? Can progress in understanding the tools of causal inference in some sciences lead to progress in others? This book tackles these questions and others concerning the use of causality in the sciences.

Download Complicity in International Law PDF
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Publisher : OUP Oxford
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ISBN 10 : 9780191056758
Pages : 272 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (91 users)
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Download or read book Complicity in International Law written by Miles Jackson and published by OUP Oxford. This book was released on 2015-03-12 with total page 272 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.

Download Causation and Universals PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781134950010
Pages : 384 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (349 users)
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Download or read book Causation and Universals written by Evan Fales and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2002-09-11 with total page 384 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The world contains objective causal relations and universals, both of which are intimately connected. If these claims are true, they must have far-reaching consequences, breathing new life into the theory of empirical knowledge and reinforcing epistemological realism. Without causes and universals, Professor Fales argues, realism is defeated, and idealism or scepticism wins. Fales begins with a detailed analysis of David Hume's argument that we have no direct experience of necessary connections between events, concluding that Hume was mistaken on this fundamental point. Then, adopting the view of Armstrong and others that causation is grounded in a second-order relation between universals, he explores a range of topics for which the resulting analysis of causation has systematic implications. In particular, causal identity conditions for physical universals are proposed, which generate a new argument for Platonism. The nature of space and time is discussed, with arguments against backward causation and for the view that space and time can exist independently of matter or causal process. Many of Professor Fales's conclusions seem to run counter to received opinion among contemporary empiricists. Yet his method is classically empiricist in spirit, and a chief motive for these metaphysical explorations is epistemological. The final chapters investigate the perennial question of whether an empiricist, internalist and foundational epistemology can support scientific realism.

Download Causation in Population Health Informatics and Data Science PDF
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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783319963075
Pages : 134 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (199 users)
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Download or read book Causation in Population Health Informatics and Data Science written by Olaf Dammann and published by Springer. This book was released on 2018-10-29 with total page 134 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Marketing text: This book covers the overlap between informatics, computer science, philosophy of causation, and causal inference in epidemiology and population health research. Key concepts covered include how data are generated and interpreted, and how and why concepts in health informatics and the philosophy of science should be integrated in a systems-thinking approach. Furthermore, a formal epistemology for the health sciences and public health is suggested. Causation in Population Health Informatics and Data Science provides a detailed guide of the latest thinking on causal inference in population health informatics. It is therefore a critical resource for all informaticians and epidemiologists interested in the potential benefits of utilising a systems-based approach to causal inference in health informatics.

Download On the Concept of Power PDF
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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780197607480
Pages : 280 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (976 users)
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Download or read book On the Concept of Power written by Assistant Professor of Political Theory and Constitutional Democracy Guido Parietti and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2022 with total page 280 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: ""Power" is a central concept for politics, arguably defining the political domain as such. However, despite decades of debate across political science, sociology, and philosophy, a proper definition of power is still to be had. Existing definitions fail because they are either circular or so far removed from the ordinary meaning of "power" that they cannot credibly claim to be about the same concept. This book, employing an Arendtian approach to conceptual analysis, provides a more proper definition - power denotes the condition of having available possibilities and representing them as such - and examines its implications for the study of politics, both empirical and normative. From the vantage point of a proper definition, the book shows how, by neglecting the category of possibility, significant portions of political science and philosophy become incapable of conceptualizing power, and therefore politics. The main issue with political science is the increasingly exclusive focus on causal and probabilistic regularities; political philosophy, on the other hand, tends to prioritize various forms of a teleologically oriented normativity. Both of these approaches end up discarding possibility in favor of necessity, and are therefore unable to properly conceptualize power. Finally, bringing together the different disciplinary discourses, the book examines the conditions for the concept of power to have an actual referent, which is to say: for politics to appear in our world"--

Download Hume s Theory of Causation PDF
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Publisher : A&C Black
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ISBN 10 : 9781847142221
Pages : 192 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (471 users)
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Download or read book Hume s Theory of Causation written by Angela M. Coventry and published by A&C Black. This book was released on 2006-06-08 with total page 192 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Causation has always been a central topic in the history of philosophy. Many theories causation have been advanced, but not one has approached anything like general acceptance. Yet the concept of causation is prevalent in many areas of contemporary philosophy: there are the causal theories of language, of action, of personal identity, of knowledge, of perception, of scientific explanation, and of reference. If causation is doing all this philosophical work, it seems essential to strive for an intelligible account of what a 'cause' actually is. One obvious place to start is Hume's analysis of causation, which is generally thought to be the most significant and influential single contribution to the topic. But despite the widely recognized importance of his analysis, many opposing interpretations surround his causal theory. There are some commentators who believe that his theory is a version of realism and many others who argue that it is a version of anti-realism. There is considerable textual evidence for, and also against, each interpretation. Angela Coventry develops a more conciliatory approach. She argues that Hume's causal theory is best understood as 'quasi-realist' - an intermediate position between realism and anti-realism. This makes sense of some seemingly contradictory passages in Hume's work and also provides an answer to a major objection which is commonly thought to devastate his causal theory. Coventry then goes on to outline a general, topic-independent, conception of quasi-realism as distinct from realistm and anti-realism that allows it to stand as a consistent third alternative.

Download Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy PDF
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Publisher : Psychology Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780415223645
Pages : 1030 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (152 users)
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Download or read book Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy written by and published by Psychology Press. This book was released on 2000 with total page 1030 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Collects more than two thousand entries on philosophy and includes material on classic Western logic as well as international philosophies such as Marxism, Buddhism, and modern Islamic thought.

Download Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781134593910
Pages : 1064 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (345 users)
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Download or read book Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy written by Professor Edward Craig and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2013-01-11 with total page 1064 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The most complete and up-to-date philosophy reference for a new generation, with entries ranging from Abstract Objects to Wisdom, Socrates to Jean-Paul Sartre, Ancient Egyptian Philosophy to Yoruba Epistemology. The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy includes: * More than 2000 alphabetically arranged, accessible entries * Contributors from more than 1200 of the world's leading thinkers * Comprehensive coverage of the classic philosophical themes, such as Plato, Arguments for the Existence of God and Metaphysics * Up-to-date coverage of contemporary philosophers, ideas, schools and recent developments, including Jacques Derrida, Poststructuralism and Ecological Philosophy * Unrivalled international and multicultural scope with entries such as Modern Islamic Philosophy, Marxist Thought in Latin America and Chinese Buddhist Thought * An exhaustive index for ease of use * Extensive cross-referencing * Suggestions for further reading at the end of each entry

Download Causality PDF
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Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
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ISBN 10 : 9780199662678
Pages : 310 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (996 users)
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Download or read book Causality written by Phyllis McKay Illari and published by Oxford University Press, USA. This book was released on 2014 with total page 310 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Scientific and philosophical literature on causality has become highly specialised. It is hard to find suitable access points for students, young researchers, or professionals outside this domain. This book provides a guide to the complex literature, explains the scientific problems of causality and the philosophical tools needed to address them.

Download Formal Ontology in Information Systems PDF
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Publisher : IOS Press
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ISBN 10 : 1586034685
Pages : 363 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (346 users)
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Download or read book Formal Ontology in Information Systems written by Achille C. Varzi and published by IOS Press. This book was released on 2004 with total page 363 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Just as ontology developed over the centuries as part of philosophy, so in recent years ontology has become intertwined with the development of the information sciences. Researchers in such areas as artificial intelligence, formal and computational linguistics, biomedical informatics, conceptual modeling, knowledge engineering and information retrieval have come to realize that a solid foundation for their research calls for serious work in ontology, understood as a general theory of the types of entities and relations that make up their respective domains of inquiry. In all these areas, attention has started to focus on the content of information rather than on just the formats and languages in terms of which information is represented. A clear example of this development is provided by the many initiatives growing up around the project of the Semantic Web. And as the need for integrating research in these different fields arises, so does the realization that strong principles for building well-founded ontologies might provide significant advantages over ad hoc, case-based solutions. The tools of Formal Ontology address precisely these needs, but a real effort is required in order to apply such philosophical tools to the domain of Information Systems. Reciprocally, research in the information science raises specific ontological questions which call for further philosophical investigations.

Download The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action PDF
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Publisher : Psychology Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781317734901
Pages : 332 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (177 users)
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Download or read book The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action written by Peter Anthony White and published by Psychology Press. This book was released on 2018-10-24 with total page 332 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This text is an attempt to trace out a line of development in the understanding of how things happen, from origins in infancy to mature forms in adulthood. There are two distinct but related ways in which people understand things as happening, denoted by the terms "causation" and "action". This book is concerned with both.; The central claim and organizing principle of the book is that, by the end of the second year of life, children have differentiated two core theories of how things happen. These theories deal with causation and action. The two theories have a common point of origin in the infant's experience of producing actions, but thereafter diverge, both in content and in realm of application. Once established, the core theories of causation and action never change, but form a permanent metaphysical underpinning on which subsequent developments in the understanding of how things happen are erected. The story of development is therefore largely the story of how further concepts become attached to integrated with the core theories. Although the developmental and adult literatures on causal understanding appear at first glance to have little in common, in fact this appearance is illusory, and the idea of two theories helps to bring the two literatures in contact with each other.; The book begins with a survey of the main philosophical ideas about causation and action. Following this, the possible origins of understanding in infancy are reviewed, and separate chapters then deal with the development of understanding of action and causation through childhood. This is then linked to the adult understanding of action and causation, and the literature on adult causal attribution and causal judgement is reviewed from this perspective.

Download Questioning Causality  Scientific Explorations of Cause and Consequence Across Social Contexts PDF
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Publisher : ABC-CLIO
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ISBN 10 : 9781440831799
Pages : 421 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (48 users)
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Download or read book Questioning Causality Scientific Explorations of Cause and Consequence Across Social Contexts written by Rom Harré and published by ABC-CLIO. This book was released on 2016-01-25 with total page 421 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Covering a topic applicable to fields ranging from education to health care to psychology, this book provides a broad critical analysis of the assumptions that researchers and practitioners have about causation and explains how readers can improve their thinking about causation.