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Download The Transformation of Targeted Killing and International Order PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9780429594359
Pages : 152 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (295 users)
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Download or read book The Transformation of Targeted Killing and International Order written by Martin Senn and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2020-05-21 with total page 152 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This comprehensive volume addresses the important question of whether and how the current transformation of targeted killing is transforming the global international order. The age-old practice of targeted killing has undergone a profound transformation since the turn of the millennium. States resort to it more frequently, especially in the context of counter-terrorism operations. The rapid development of surveillance and drone technologies facilitates targeted-killing missions, and states are starting to slowly abandon their policies of secrecy and denial with regard to this form of violence. To answer this question, the volume introduces a theoretical framework that conceives the maintenance and transformation of international order as a dynamic, triangular process between violence, discourse, and the institutions that make up the international order. It then sheds light on different parts of this triangular process: the reinterpretation of international law to legitimize targeted killing, the contestation between state and non-state actors over the development of a new targeted-killing norm, the emergence of targeted killing in the context of changes in the broader normative context of international order, and the impact of new technologies, in particular autonomous weapons systems, on the future of targeted-killing practices and international order. This book was originally published as a special issue of Contemporary Security Policy.

Download Normative Transformation and the War on Terrorism PDF
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Publisher : Cambridge University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781316515174
Pages : 250 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (165 users)
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Download or read book Normative Transformation and the War on Terrorism written by Simon Frankel Pratt and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2021-12-31 with total page 250 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Sociological analysis of the transformation of prohibitions on assassination, torture, and mercenaries as components of the US War on Terror.

Download Preventive Force PDF
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Publisher : NYU Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781479857531
Pages : 368 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (798 users)
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Download or read book Preventive Force written by Kerstin Fisk and published by NYU Press. This book was released on 2016-07-05 with total page 368 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: More so than in the past, the US is now embracing the logic of preventive force: using military force to counter potential threats around the globe before they have fully materialized. While popular with individuals who seek to avoid too many “boots on the ground,” preventive force is controversial because of its potential for unnecessary collateral damage. Who decides what threats are ‘imminent’? Is there an international legal basis to kill or harm individuals who have a connection to that threat? Do the benefits of preventive force justify the costs? And, perhaps most importantly, is the US setting a dangerous international precedent? In Preventive Force, editors Kerstin Fisk and Jennifer Ramos bring together legal scholars, political scientists, international relations scholars, and prominent defense specialists to examine these questions, whether in the context of full-scale preventive war or preventive drone strikes. In particular, the volume highlights preventive drones strikes, as they mark a complete transformation of how the US understands international norms regarding the use of force, and could potentially lead to a ‘slippery slope’ for the US and other nations in terms of engaging in preventive warfare as a matter of course. A comprehensive resource that speaks to the contours of preventive force as a security strategy as well as to the practical, legal, and ethical considerations of its implementation, Preventive Force is a useful guide for political scientists, international relations scholars, and policymakers who seek a thorough and current overview of this essential topic.

Download Drones and Global Order PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781000528800
Pages : 288 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (5 users)
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Download or read book Drones and Global Order written by Paul Lushenko and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2021-12-29 with total page 288 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book explores the implications of drone warfare for the legitimacy of global order. The literature on drone warfare has evolved from studying the proliferation of drones, to measuring their effectiveness, to exploring their legal, moral, and ethical impacts. These "three waves" of scholarship do not, however, address the implications of drone warfare for global order. This book fills the gap by contributing to a "fourth wave" of literature concerned with the trade-offs imposed by drone warfare for global order. The book draws on the "English School" of International Relations Theory, which is premised on the existence of a society of states bounded by common norms, values, and institutions, to argue that drone warfare imposes contradictions on the structural and normative pillars of global order. These consist of the structure of international society and diffusion of military capabilities, as well as the sovereign equality of states and laws of armed conflict. The book presents a typology of contradictions imposed by drone warfare within and across these axes that threaten the legitimacy of global order. This framework also suggests a confounding consequence of drone warfare that scholars have not hitherto explored rigorously: drone warfare can sometimes strengthen global order. The volume concludes by proposing a research agenda to reconcile the complex and often counter-intuitive impacts of drone warfare for global order. This book will be of considerable interest to students of security studies, global governance, and International Relations.

Download Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9 11 PDF
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Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
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ISBN 10 : 9781786438027
Pages : 456 pages
Rating : 4.7/5 (864 users)
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Download or read book Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9 11 written by David Martin Jones and published by Edward Elgar Publishing. This book was released on 2019-12-27 with total page 456 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Almost two decades after the events of 9/11, this Handbook offers a comprehensive insight into the evolution and development of terrorism and insurgency since then. Gathering contributions from a broad range of perspectives, it both identifies new technological developments in terrorism and insurgency, and addresses the distinct state responses to the threat of political, or religiously motivated violence; not only in the Middle East and Europe, but also in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and North and South America.

Download The Humanisation of Global Politics PDF
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Publisher : Cambridge University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781108830140
Pages : 319 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (88 users)
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Download or read book The Humanisation of Global Politics written by Sassan Gholiagha and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2022-08-31 with total page 319 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The book draws on International Relations Theory and International Law to study the humanisation of global politics especially within security discourses.

Download Rethinking the Crime of Aggression PDF
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Publisher : Springer Nature
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ISBN 10 : 9789462654679
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (626 users)
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Download or read book Rethinking the Crime of Aggression written by Stefanie Bock and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Download Human Rights and U S  Foreign Policy PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781351205818
Pages : 210 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (512 users)
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Download or read book Human Rights and U S Foreign Policy written by Clair Apodaca and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2019-05-08 with total page 210 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy provides a comprehensive historical overview and analysis of the complex and often vexing problem of understanding the formation of U.S. human rights policy. The proper place of human rights and fundamental freedoms in U.S. foreign policy has long been debated among scholars, politicians, and the American public. Clair Apodaca argues that the history of U.S.human rights policy unfolds as a series of prevarications that are the result of presidential preferences, along with the conflict and cooperation among bureaucratic actors. Through a series of chapters devoted to U.S. presidential administrations from Richard Nixon to the present, she delivers a comprehensive historical, social, and cultural context to understand the development and implementation of U.S. human rights policy. For each administration, she pays close attention to how ideology, bureaucratic politics, lobbying, and competition affect the inclusion or exclusion of human rights in the economic and military aid allocation decisions of the United States. She further demonstrates that from the inception of U.S. human rights policy, presidents have attempted to tell only part of the truth or to reformulate the truth by redefining the meaning of the terms "human rights," "democracy," or "torture," for example. In this way, human rights policy has been about prevarication. Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy is a key text for students, which will appeal to all readers who will find a historically informed, argument driven account of the erratic evolution of U.S. human rights policy since the Nixon Administration.

Download Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms PDF
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Publisher : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
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ISBN 10 : 9780228009245
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.2/5 (28 users)
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Download or read book Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms written by Ingvild Bode and published by McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. This book was released on 2022-01-15 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Autonomous weapons systems seem to be on the path to becoming accepted technologies of warfare. The weaponization of artificial intelligence raises questions about whether human beings will maintain control of the use of force. The notion of meaningful human control has become a focus of international debate on lethal autonomous weapons systems among members of the United Nations: many states have diverging ideas about various complex forms of human-machine interaction and the point at which human control stops being meaningful. In Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms Ingvild Bode and Hendrik Huelss present an innovative study of how testing, developing, and using weapons systems with autonomous features shapes ethical and legal norms, and how standards manifest and change in practice. Autonomous weapons systems are not a matter for the distant future – some autonomous features, such as in air defence systems, have been in use for decades. They have already incrementally changed use-of-force norms by setting emerging standards for what counts as meaningful human control. As UN discussions drag on with minimal progress, the trend towards autonomizing weapons systems continues. A thought-provoking and urgent book, Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms provides an in-depth analysis of the normative repercussions of weaponizing artificial intelligence.

Download The Russian Federation in Global Knowledge Warfare PDF
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Publisher : Springer Nature
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ISBN 10 : 9783030739553
Pages : 423 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (37 users)
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Download or read book The Russian Federation in Global Knowledge Warfare written by Holger Mölder and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2021-07-24 with total page 423 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book examines Russian influence operations globally, in Europe, and in Russia’s neighboring countries, and provides a comprehensive overview of the latest technologies and forms of strategic communication employed in hybrid warfare. Given the growing importance of comprehensive information warfare as a new and rapidly advancing type of international conflict in which knowledge is a primary target, the book examines Russia’s role in Global Knowledge Warfare. The content is divided into three parts, the first of which addresses conceptual issues such as the logic of information warfare, the role of synthetic media, and Russia’s foreign policy concepts, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on influence operations. The second part analyzes technological, legal and strategic challenges in modern hybrid warfare, while the third focuses on textual, cultural and historical patterns in information warfare, also from various regional (e.g. the Western Balkans, Romania, Ukraine, and the Baltic) perspectives. The book is primarily intended for scholars in the fields of international relations, security and the military sciences who are interested in Russian foreign policy and influence operations, but also their impact on the global security environment.

Download The Juridification of Individual Sanctions and the Politics of EU Law PDF
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Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
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ISBN 10 : 9781509909803
Pages : 352 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (99 users)
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Download or read book The Juridification of Individual Sanctions and the Politics of EU Law written by Eva Nanopoulos and published by Bloomsbury Publishing. This book was released on 2020-02-06 with total page 352 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In the early 1990s the then European Community imposed for the first time a set of economic restrictions against a specific entity: the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. Since then, the individualisation of sanctions has become entrenched, these so-called 'smart' sanctions have proliferated, their targets and scope of application have significantly expanded, and they operate in an increasingly juridified environment. This book aims to shed light on the constitutive dynamics and causes of these developments, with a focus on the juridification of individual sanctions at the European level. To this end it first revisits the phenomenon of individualisation – moving beyond the conventional narrative that individual sanctions emerged because of humanitarian and effectiveness concerns – and situates the 'smarting' of sanctions within the context of broader structural transformations characterised by the consolidation of the global neoliberal order. Second, the book explores why the role of law has been so pronounced in the European context by unearthing the connections between EU law and capitalist order building.

Download War  Torture and Terrorism PDF
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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN 10 : 9781405173988
Pages : 160 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (51 users)
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Download or read book War Torture and Terrorism written by David Rodin and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2007-10-29 with total page 160 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This collection by leading scholars represents state of the art writings on the ethics of war. Many of the most important and contested controversies in modern war receive comprehensive discussion: the practice of torture, terrorism, assassination and targeted killing, the bombing of civilians in war, humanitarian intervention, and the invasion of Iraq Analytical introduction provides a guide to recent developments in the ethics of war An excellent overview for general readers interested in the current debate and controversies over the ethics of war

Download Normative Reconfiguration and Practitioner Innovation PDF
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ISBN 10 : OCLC:1333977686
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.:/5 (133 users)
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Download or read book Normative Reconfiguration and Practitioner Innovation written by Simon Pratt and published by . This book was released on 2017 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This dissertation advances a new theory of normative transformation. It explains 'norm change' when previously prohibited practices become widespread and institutionalised, but without the obvious rise or fall of any single specific norm covering them. Three prominent cases, all in the recent history of US counter-terrorism and defence policies, offer an empirical puzzle this theory solves: the emergence of a targeted killing programme, the use of torture during interrogations, and the employment of armed private military and security contractors. In these cases, there has been no obvious demise of a given norm-against assassination, torture, or mercenarism-but it is clear that something changed the once-impermissible into an entrenched practice. To specify the causal processes underlying these cases, I shift the focus of analysis from 'norms' to 'normative configurations': unfolding relational arrangements of practices establishing values, principles, and rules. Drawing on pragmatist and relational sociology, I propose that normative configurations transform via three mechanisms, driven by innovative practitioner attempts to cope with new strategic and ethical pressures-by creative problem-solving. The first is convention reorientation, a change in the regulations and standards that define a given action. The second is technological revision, a change in the means by which an action proceeds. The third is network synthesis, a change in the relationships or organisational structures that grant and circumscribe authority. By tracing how these mechanisms worked in the three cases, I find that prohibitions on assassination, torture, and mercenarism still exist, but their referents changed due to new political and military pressures, along with the innovations that actors have developed to cope with them. This finding clarifies scholarly debates over whether/how the US's war on terrorism is counter-normative. More broadly, my approach contributes to the literature on international norms and practices. It dereifies 'norms' into their ontological constituents, enabling a granular, agency-centric look at how actors and institutions transform as a result of creative action. It thus widens scholarly discussions of norms to admit a broader range of sociological approaches, opening up the origins and effects of normativity to new kinds of theories.

Download Digital Transformation and Ethics PDF
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Publisher : Nomos Verlag
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ISBN 10 : 9783845285504
Pages : 537 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (452 users)
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Download or read book Digital Transformation and Ethics written by Peter G. Kirchschlaeger and published by Nomos Verlag. This book was released on 2021-05-28 with total page 537 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Dieses Buch diskutiert die Digitalisierung, Robotisierung und Automatisierung der Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft und den Einsatz von künstlicher Intelligenz aus einer ethischen Perspektive. Nach einer Einleitung zur Beziehung zwischen Moral und Technologie und einer Bewertung der Moralfähigkeit von Technologien führt das Buch ethische Prinzipien ein, die der ethischen Beurteilung der digitalen Transformation der Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft zugrunde liegen. Anschließend werden Chancen und Herausforderungen der digitalen Transformation aus einer ethischen Sicht analysiert. Schließlich werden hinsichtlich der Herausforderungen ethische Lösungsansätze entwickelt. Einer der Forschungsschwerpunkte von Peter G. Kirchschläger (Ordinarius für Theologische Ethik und Leiter des Instituts für Sozialethik ISE an der Universität Luzern; zuvor Visiting Fellow an der Yale University) liegt auf der Ethik der Digitalisierung, Robotisierung, Automatisierung und künstlichen Intelligenz.

Download Targeted Killing PDF
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Publisher : Cambridge University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781316552841
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (165 users)
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Download or read book Targeted Killing written by Markus Gunneflo and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2016-05-12 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Looking beyond the events of the second intifada and 9/11, this book reveals how targeted killing is intimately embedded in both Israeli and US statecraft, and in the problematic relationship between sovereign authority and lawful violence underpinning the modern state system. It details the legal and political issues raised in targeted killing as it has emerged in practice, including questions of domestic constitutional authority, the use of force in international law, the law of belligerent occupation, the law of targeting and human rights law. The distinctive nature of Israeli and US targeted killing is analysed in terms of the compulsion of legality characteristic of the liberal constitutional state, a compulsion that demands the ability to distinguish between legal 'targeted killing' and extra-legal 'political assassination'. The effect is a highly legalized framework for the extraterritorial killing of designated terrorists that may significantly affect the international law of force.

Download Targeted Killing in International Law PDF
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Publisher : OUP Oxford
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ISBN 10 : 9780191029875
Pages : 528 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (91 users)
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Download or read book Targeted Killing in International Law written by Nils Melzer and published by OUP Oxford. This book was released on 2008-05-29 with total page 528 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book conducts an in-depth analysis into the lawfulness of State-sponsored targeted killings under international human rights and humanitarian law. It also addresses the relevance of the law of inter-state force to targeted killings, and the interrelation of the various normative frameworks which may simultaneously apply to operations involving the intentional use of lethal force. Through a comprehensive analysis of treaties, custom, and general principles of law in light of jurisprudence, doctrine, and travaux preparatoires the author demonstrates that contemporary international law provides two distinct normative paradigms which govern the use of lethal force in law enforcement and in the conduct of hostilities. Based on the resulting normative paradigms, the author shows in what circumstances targeted killings may be considered as internationally lawful. The practical relevance of the various conditions and modalities is illustrated by reference to concrete examples of targeted killing from recent State practice. In essence the book argues that any targeted killing not directed against a legitimate military target remains subject to the law enforcement paradigm, which imposes extensive restraints on the practice. Even under the paradigm of hostilities, no person can be lawfully liquidated without further considerations. As a form of individualized or surgical warfare, the method of targeted killing requires a 'microscopic' interpretation of the law regulating the conduct of hostilities which leads to nuanced results. The author concludes by highlighting and comparing the main areas of concern arising with regard to State-sponsored targeted killing under each normative paradigm and by placing the results of the analysis in the wider context of the rule of law.

Download Moral Victories PDF
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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780198801825
Pages : 272 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (988 users)
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Download or read book Moral Victories written by Andrew R. Hom and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2018-01-23 with total page 272 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: What does it mean to win a moral victory? Ideals of just and decisive triumphs often colour the call to war, yet victory is an increasingly dubious proposition in modern conflict, where negotiated settlements and festering violence have replaced formal surrenders. In the Just War and strategic studies traditions, assumptions about victory also underpin decisions to go to war but become more problematic in discussions about its conduct and conclusion. So although winning is typically considered the very object of war, we lack a clear understanding of victory itself. Likewise, we lack reliable resources for discerning a just from an unjust victory, for balancing the duty to fight ethically with the obligation to win, and for assessing the significance of changing ways of war for moral judgment. Though not amenable to easy answers, these important questions are both perennial and especially urgent. This book brings together a group of leading scholars from various disciplines to tackle them. It covers both traditions of victory - charting the historically variable notion of victory and the dialogues and fissures this opens in the just war and strategic canons - along with contemporary challenges of victory- analysing how new security contexts put pressure on these fissures and working toward clearer ideas about victory today. The result is a wide-ranging and timely collection of essays that bridges the gap between ethical, strategic, and historical approaches to war and develops new ways of thinking about it as a practical and moral proposition.