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Download Creation of Novel Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides PDF
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ISBN 10 : UCLA:L0096928718
Pages : 306 pages
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Download or read book Creation of Novel Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides written by Randal Hojem Eckert and published by . This book was released on 2006 with total page 306 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Download New edge of antibiotic development  antimicrobial peptides and corresponding resistance PDF
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Publisher : Frontiers E-books
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ISBN 10 : 9782889193011
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (891 users)
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Download or read book New edge of antibiotic development antimicrobial peptides and corresponding resistance written by Octavio L. Franco and published by Frontiers E-books. This book was released on 2014-09-26 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Antimicrobial peptides, commonly isolated from several organisms, have been considered part of innate immune system and also as potential antimicrobial drugs. Besides its antimicrobial activity, some AMPs also have antifungal activity, inmmunomodulatory and antitumural activities. Lately not only nature has become a source of AMPs. Besides isolation of natural organisms, antimicrobial peptides might be improved or created using computational tools. This opens even more this so amazing field by creating infinite novel and remarkable possibilities. Overall the current issue highlights the relevance of such Research Topic with perspectives to develop entirely new molecules with vast application within health and agricultural field with higher affinity for its target with concomitant reduction of side effects.

Download Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching  A Battle with No End in Sight PDF
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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9788132219828
Pages : 391 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (322 users)
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Download or read book Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching A Battle with No End in Sight written by Vipin Chandra Kalia and published by Springer. This book was released on 2014-09-29 with total page 391 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Microbial relationships with all life forms can be as free living, symbiotic or pathogenic. Human beings harbor 10 times more microbial cells than their own. Bacteria are found on the skin surface, in the gut and other body parts. Bacteria causing diseases are the most worrisome. Most of the infectious diseases are caused by bacterial pathogens with an ability to form biofilm. Bacteria within the biofilm are up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics. This has taken a more serious turn with the evolution of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Health Departments are making efforts to reduce high mortality and morbidity in man caused by them. Bacterial Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density dependent phenomenon is responsible for a wide range of expressions such as pathogenesis, biofilm formation, competence, sporulation, nitrogen fixation, etc. Majority of these organisms that are important for medical, agriculture, aquaculture, water treatment and remediation, archaeological departments are: Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Clostridia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Yersinia spp. Biosensors and models have been developed to detect QS systems. Strategies for inhibiting QS system through natural and synthetic compounds have been presented here. The biotechnological applications of QS inhibitors (QSIs) in diverse areas have also been dealt with. Although QSIs do not affect growth and are less likely to impose selective pressure on bacteria, however, a few reports have raised doubts on the fate of QSIs. This book addresses a few questions. Will bacteria develop mechanisms to evade QSIs? Are we watching yet another defeat at the hands of bacteria? Or will we be acting intelligently and survive the onslaughts of this Never Ending battle?

Download Antimicrobial Peptides PDF
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Publisher : CABI
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ISBN 10 : 9781786390394
Pages : 286 pages
Rating : 4.7/5 (863 users)
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Download or read book Antimicrobial Peptides written by Guangshun Wang and published by CABI. This book was released on 2017-09-01 with total page 286 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted extensive research attention worldwide. Harnessing and creating AMPs synthetically has the potential to help overcome increasing antibiotic resistance in many pathogens. This new edition lays the foundations for studying AMPs, including a discovery timeline, terminology, nomenclature and classifications. It covers current advances in AMP research and examines state-of-the-art technologies such as bioinformatics, combinatorial libraries, high-throughput screening, database-guided identification, genomics and proteomics-based prediction, and structure-based design of AMPs. Thoroughly updated and revised, this second edition contains new content covering: defensins; cathelicidins; anti-MRSA, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer and antibiofilm strategies; combined treatments; adjuvants in vaccines; advances in AMP technologies that cover surface coating to prevent biofilm formation; nanofiber encapsulation technologies for delivery and sustained release; and understanding innate immunity and the basis for immune boosting to overcome obstacles in developing AMPs into therapeutic agents. Written and reviewed by a group of established investigators in the field, Antimicrobial Peptides is a valuable resource for postgraduate students, researchers, educators, and medical and industrial personnel.

Download Design  Development  and Characterization of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides for Pharmaceutical Applications PDF
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ISBN 10 : 1339345617
Pages : 494 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (456 users)
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Download or read book Design Development and Characterization of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides for Pharmaceutical Applications written by Yazan Hussien Akkam and published by . This book was released on 2013 with total page 494 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection. This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of a short peptide sequence, referred to as KM motif, important for fungicidal activity, and finally, the development of a novel antifungal peptide with potent activity. In the initial phase of this work it was demonstrated that reversing the sequence of histatin 5 C-16 peptide to create a retro peptide did not interfere with the fungicidal activity or secondary structure of the peptide. This suggested that the spatial arrangement of amino acid residues was more relevant for fungicidal activity than the actual peptide sequence. In the second phase of the work, we identified and characterized a five amino acid sequence, termed the KM motif, within histatin 5 that maintained fungicidal properties. Although this short peptide was less active than histatin 5, the data suggested it was killing fungi via a mechanism similar to histatin 5. In the final phase, a novel antimicrobial peptide, termed KM-12, was generated containing two KM motifs dimerized via disulfide bonds. The activity of KM-12 on C. albicans was approximately fifteen times more potent than the monomeric peptide and ten times more active than the native histatin 5. KM-12 was shown to have antifungal activity with several Candida species, including fluconazole resistant species. In conclusion, KM-12 is promising antifungal peptide that will serve as a lead candidate for the development of antifungals peptide for pharmaceutical applications.

Download Antimicrobial Peptides  Utility Players in Innate Immunity PDF
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Publisher : Frontiers E-books
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ISBN 10 : 9782889190775
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (891 users)
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Download or read book Antimicrobial Peptides Utility Players in Innate Immunity written by Mark W. Robinson and published by Frontiers E-books. This book was released on with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an ancient group of molecules with diverse functions in innate immunity. To date, more than 1000 naturally-occurring AMPs have been identified which display considerable diversity in their primary sequences, lengths, structures and biological activities. Despite this variability, AMPs are broadly classified according to homologous secondary structures as cathelicidins (linear a-helical peptides), defensins (ß-strand peptides connected by disulfide bonds) and bactenecins (loop peptides). Most, but not all, AMPs are cationic with amphipathic faces. These biochemical properties bestow many peptides with potent antimicrobial activity by facilitating interactions with negatively charged microbial cell membrane components, thereby increasing membrane permeability and resulting in microbial death. Other indirect effects on microbial physiology have been reported including inhibition of DNA/RNA synthesis, impaired protein synthesis and folding, disruption of cell wall formation and inhibition of microbial cell metabolism. Thus, with the spread of antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens, AMPs have emerged as exciting candidates for next generation anti-infective therapies. However, recent studies suggest that AMPs have evolved other mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Immunomodulation is a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy that centres on boosting host immunity rather than direct microbial killing. This is also an attractive means to treat sepsis and other immune-mediated diseases. Whilst several cationic peptides are under investigation as antimicrobial agents, a select few show a remarkable ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The molecular mechanisms responsible for this protection are only beginning to emerge but include prevention of innate cell activation by targeting key stages of bacterial endotoxin-mediated cell signalling. In this research topic, hosted by Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity, we aim to highlight key areas of AMP research including peptide diversity, structure-function relationships, antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of immune-modulation. We also aim to stimulate discussion on the emerging therapeutic potential of AMPs including antifungal, antiviral and anticancer applications.

Download Dental Caries PDF
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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9783662474501
Pages : 183 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (624 users)
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Download or read book Dental Caries written by Zhou Xuedong and published by Springer. This book was released on 2015-10-20 with total page 183 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book is a well-illustrated and comprehensive guide to the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of dental caries. Current challenging problems in the field are analyzed and the latest research findings, presented. After an introductory chapter on tooth development, the relationships of biofilm and saliva to dental caries and the significance of the balance between demineralization and remineralization for the development of carious lesions are discussed. Subsequent chapters address the state of the art in diagnosis and treatment, the implications of disease burden for prevention and the association between systemic diseases and dental caries. Dental Caries: Principles and Management is intended for dental school students, practicing dentists and researchers in dentistry.

Download Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential PDF
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Publisher : MDPI
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ISBN 10 : 9783038424628
Pages : 290 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (384 users)
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Download or read book Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential written by Guangshun Wang and published by MDPI. This book was released on 2018-07-04 with total page 290 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential" that was published in Pharmaceuticals

Download Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigations of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acids with Model Membrane Systems PDF
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ISBN 10 : OCLC:733820482
Pages : 305 pages
Rating : 4.:/5 (733 users)
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Download or read book Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigations of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acids with Model Membrane Systems written by Amanda Laura Russell and published by . This book was released on 2011 with total page 305 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: With the over prescription and use of antibiotic drugs the evolution of drug resistant bacteria strains has become a world wide health crisis. In response to this crisis, the search for new drugs to kill bacteria via a novel mode of action has become of critical importance to modern medicine. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against various infectious microorganisms while exhibiting little to no mammalian cell toxicity. It's because of this selectivity that AMPs are considered as a potential new source of therapeutics for drug-resistant bacteria. It is believed that the selectivity for bacteria cell membranes over host cells and the potency between different bacteria strains is derived from the ability of the AMPs to exploit the differences in chemical composition of various organism's membranes. The hypothesis guiding this research states: The physicochemical surface properties of the target cell's membrane interact with the 3D physicochemical surface properties of the approaching AMP inducing a conformational change onto the AMP maximizing the interactions between the two to facilitate AMP-membrane binding and the formation of pores leading to intracellular leakage and cell death. There are two binding interactions that are of interest, the S-state and I-state. The S-state, or surface state, refers to the binding of the peptide to the surface of the membrane, while the I-state involves the insertion of the peptide into the bilayer. By understanding the interactions of various AMPs with different target cell membranes one can develop novel analogs with increased potency and selectivity for a particular strain of bacteria. This knowledge would eventually lead to the design of antimicrobial peptides used as pharmaceuticals to treat bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. In our laboratory we have developed a series of antimicrobial peptides that incorporate unnatural amino acids to impart specific physicochemical properties onto these peptides. Circular Dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and calcein leakage assays were conducted and it was determined that there are two distinctly different mechanisms of binding occurring between this series of peptides and zwitterionic and anionic membrane models. By understanding the interactions of various AMPs with different target cell membranes one can develop novel analogs with increased potency and selectivity.

Download Facing the Upcoming of Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria  Novel Antimicrobial Therapies  NATs  PDF
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Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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ISBN 10 : 9782889666539
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (896 users)
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Download or read book Facing the Upcoming of Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria Novel Antimicrobial Therapies NATs written by Angel León-Buitimea and published by Frontiers Media SA. This book was released on 2021-04-01 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:

Download Peptide Drug Discovery and Development PDF
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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN 10 : 9783527636747
Pages : 390 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (276 users)
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Download or read book Peptide Drug Discovery and Development written by Miguel Castanho and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2011-10-24 with total page 390 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Filling a real knowledge gap, this handbook and ready reference is both modern and forward-looking in its emphasis on the "bench to bedside" translational approach to drug development. Clearly structured into three major parts, the book stakes out the boundaries of peptide drug development in the preclinical as well as clinical stages. The first part provides a general background and focuses on the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of peptide drugs. The second section contains five cases studies of peptides from diverse therapeutic fields, and the lessons to be learned from them, while the final part looks at new targets and opportunities, discussing several drug targets and diseases for which peptide drugs are currently being developed.

Download Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement     Maximising the Inflammatory Response PDF
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Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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ISBN 10 : 9782889197378
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (891 users)
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Download or read book Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement Maximising the Inflammatory Response written by Cordula M. Stover and published by Frontiers Media SA. This book was released on 2015-12-18 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Antimicrobial peptides and complement are distinct components of the innate immune defence. While antimicrobial peptides, after cleavage of a preproprotein, have the ability to insert directly in non host membranes, complement requires a sequential enzymatic activation in the fluid phase in order to produce a transmembrane membrane attack complex. Its insertion is controlled by membrane bound regulators. Deficiencies are described for both effectors and relate to increased susceptibility of infection. In addition, however, antimicrobial peptides and complement each influence the activity of inflammatory cells as recent data in the respective research areas shows. This series of articles draws together for the entities of antimicrobial peptides and complement a balance of contributions in the areas of evolution, roles, functions and preclinical applications. By comparing and contrasting antimicrobial peptides and complement, greater cross-disciplinary appreciation will be derived for their individual and overlapping spectra of activity, circumstances of activation and their general ability to more completely inform the inflammatory and cellular response.

Download The Challenging of Antibiotic Resistance in the Development of New Therapeutics PDF
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Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
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ISBN 10 : 9781681081403
Pages : 275 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (81 users)
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Download or read book The Challenging of Antibiotic Resistance in the Development of New Therapeutics written by Manuela Oliveira and published by Bentham Science Publishers. This book was released on 2015-12-03 with total page 275 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The addition of only two novel classes of antibiotics to fight drug resistant microorganisms in the clinic over the past three decades means that the quest for new molecules that are effective against the threat of drug resistance is now a significant issue in modern medicine. Researchers have begun to experiment on alternative therapies to combat this threat. Novel chemical agents are considered to be drugs of choice for tomorrow's clinical practice owing to their low probability to generate resistance. The first volume of Frontiers in Antimicrobial Agents describes innovative alternatives to the classical antimicrobial therapeutics, such as phage therapy, AMPs, probiotics, novel biocides, natural products and immunotherapy. Cutting-edge research is brought to the forefront, shedding light on the developments taking place to meet the challenge of drug resistant microorganisms. The volume also features information on antimicrobial approaches in veterinary medicine. The book is a useful reference for researchers, microbiologists and healthcare professionals interested in updates on antibiotic resistance and alternatives to classical antibiotic therapy.

Download Head  Neck  and Orofacial Infections PDF
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Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
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ISBN 10 : 9780323289450
Pages : 482 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (232 users)
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Download or read book Head Neck and Orofacial Infections written by James R. Hupp and published by Elsevier Health Sciences. This book was released on 2015-11-02 with total page 482 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Use best practices in effectively treating infections of the head, neck, and orofacial complex! Head, Neck, and Orofacial Infections: An Interdisciplinary Approach is the only resource on the market with in-depth guidelines to the diagnosis and management of pathology due to severe infections. No longer do you have to search through journal articles and websites, as this comprehensive, full-color reference covers both cutting-edge and time-tested approaches to recognizing and handling infections. From well-known OMS educator James Hupp and oral surgeon Elie Ferneini, and with chapters written by expert contributors, this book is ideal for use in the classroom, as preparation for the NBDE and specialty exams, and as a clinical resource for patient care. UNIQUE! Comprehensive coverage of head, neck, and orofacial infections addresses the diagnosis and management of pathology due to infections of the head and neck and orofacial complex. Expert contributors are drawn from the disciplines of oral and maxillofacial surgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, and otolaryngology, and they provide state-of-the-art guidance based on extensive experience with current techniques as well as technological advances in managing head, neck, and orofacial infections. Over 500 photographs, radiographs, and illustrations demonstrate pathologies, procedures, and outcomes. A logical organization addresses these topics: 1) issues that are common to all infections of the head and neck region, 2) infections of specific parts of the region, and 3) infections related to certain procedures, types of patients, unusual organisms, and medical-legal implications. Key chapters include: Odontogenic Infections of the Fascial Spaces chapter focuses on the etiology, clinical manifestations, anatomic considerations, and treatment of odontogenic infections. Nasal and Para-Nasal Sinus Infections chapter discusses the pathophysiology and management of nasal and paranasal sinus infections. Microbiologic Considerations with Dental Implants chapter reviews the issues associated with the prevention of infection with surgical implant placement, including the factors that are known to cause infection, the putative bacteria involved and means to control infection once it occurs.

Download Antibiotics PDF
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Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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ISBN 10 : 9783527659708
Pages : 576 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (276 users)
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Download or read book Antibiotics written by Claudio O. Gualerzi and published by John Wiley & Sons. This book was released on 2013-09-05 with total page 576 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Most of the antibiotics now in use have been discovered more or less by chance, and their mechanisms of action have only been elucidated after their discovery. To meet the medical need for next-generation antibiotics, a more rational approach to antibiotic development is clearly needed. Opening with a general introduction about antimicrobial drugs, their targets and the problem of antibiotic resistance, this reference systematically covers currently known antibiotic classes, their molecular mechanisms and the targets on which they act. Novel targets such as cell signaling networks, riboswitches and bacterial chaperones are covered here, alongside the latest information on the molecular mechanisms of current blockbuster antibiotics. With its broad overview of current and future antibacterial drug development, this unique reference is essential reading for anyone involved in the development and therapeutic application of novel antibiotics.

Download Organization of the Streptococcal ExPortal and Its Interaction with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides PDF
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ISBN 10 : OCLC:855116692
Pages : 194 pages
Rating : 4.:/5 (855 users)
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Download or read book Organization of the Streptococcal ExPortal and Its Interaction with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides written by Luis Alberto Vega and published by . This book was released on 2012 with total page 194 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Streptococcus pyogenes and other Gram-positive pathogens are highly dependent on secreted virulence proteins for their ability to colonize a host and evade the immune effectors that act on pathogens to prevent this. Unlike eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, all Gram-positive pathogens lack a cellular compartment dedicated to folding and processing secreted proteins once they have been translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane. S. pyogenes and other Gram-positive organisms overcome this challenge by clustering the secretory translocons at a defined anionic lipid microdomain of the cytoplasmic membrane that is enriched for accessory factors needed for protein biogenesis, referred to as the ExPortal. The manner in which S. pyogenes achieves and maintains spatial coordination of the factors that constitute the ExPortal is not understood. Given the importance of secreted virulence proteins to streptococcal pathogenicity, the ExPortal is an attractive target for the development of therapeutics that can efficiently counter streptococcal infections. I investigated the interaction of cationic antimicrobial peptides with the streptococcal ExPortal to provide insights into how this secretory organelle is organized and how it may be targeted by this mechanism of innate immunity. Cationinc antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) targeted the anionic lipid microdomain of the ExPortal. Traditionally regarded as membrane permeabilizing compounds, CAPs interacted with the streptococcal membrane at concentrations that did not porate the membrane. Rather, exposure of S. pyogenes to sub-lethal CAP concentrations resulted in concomitant redistribution of anionic lipids, translocons and accessory factors to peripheral regions of the membrane. In addition, CAPs inhibited secretion of important virulence proteins, including the pathogenically relevant SpeB protease and Streptolysin O (SLO) cytolysin. One of the CAPs investigated also targets the lipid II precursor of extracellular peptidoglycan, suggesting the influence of CAPs on ExPortal organization extended beyond their affinity for negatively charged membrane lipids and that the streptococcal cell wall is involved in organizing the ExPortal. Removal of extracellular peptidoglycan also resulted in redistribution of anionic lipids and ExPortal protein, indicating the cell wall is required for maintaining proper localization of both lipid and protein components of the ExPortal. Exposure of streptococci to lantibiotics that preferentially bind and sequester lipid II in the cytoplasmic membrane disrupted ExPortal organization and secretory function in a manner similar to CAP activity. Given that both CAPs and lantibiotics target lipid components of the cytoplasmic membrane, it appears that lipid segregation in the membrane is central to organization of the ExPortal. Establishment or maintenance of this lipid segregation could involve interaction with petidoglycan synthesis in the streptococcal membrane, as two membrane-localized synthetic enzymes, one integral (MraY), the other membrane-associated (MurN), that are required for lipid II production are localized in the same anionic lipid microdomain to where secretory translocons of the ExPortal are targeted to. This provides a potential model for the mechanism(s) organizing the ExPortal. Cytoskeletal proteins and cell wall biogenesis components which are observed to interact with cytoplasmic membrane structures to organize membrane localized processes required for cell growth and division influence the segregation of anionic lipids in the membrane, and by extension, where and how the ExPortal is organized. Testing of this model by genetic and molecular approaches that target components of cell division and peptidoglycan will provide both further insights into how Gram-positive bacteria coordinate protein biogenesis with secretion as well as reveal novel potential targets for the development of effective therapeutics against pathogens like S. pyogenes.

Download Amino Acids  Peptides and Proteins PDF
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Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
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ISBN 10 : 9781847557445
Pages : 350 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (475 users)
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Download or read book Amino Acids Peptides and Proteins written by J S Davies and published by Royal Society of Chemistry. This book was released on 2007-10-31 with total page 350 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In an ever-increasing domain of activity, Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins provides an annual compilation of the world's research effort into this important area of biological chemistry. Volume 34 provides a review of literature published during 2001. Comprising a comprehensive review of significant developments at this biology/chemistry interface, each volume opens with an overview of amino acids and their applications. Work on peptides is reviewed over several chapters, ranging from current trends in their synthesis and conformational and structural analysis, to peptidomimetics and the discovery of peptide-related molecules in nature. The application of advanced techniques in structural elucidation is incorporated into all chapters, whilst periodic chapters on metal complexes of amino acids, peptides and beta-lactams extend the scope of coverage. Efficient searching of specialist topics is facilitated by the sub-division of chapters into discrete subject areas, allowing annual trends to be monitored. All researchers in the pharmaceutical and allied industries, and at the biology/chemistry interface in academia will find this an indispensable reference source. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.